Claude Monet Chronology
from the book Monet: A Retrospective

(see also Great Paintings of the Western World)

1840    NOVEMBER 14. Oscar-Claude Monet born in rue Laffitte, Paris.

   His family moves to Le Havre, where Monet's father enters the business of his more successful brother-in-law, Jacques Lecadre, a ship chandler and grocer with a weekend house in the beach-resort suburb of Sainte-Adresse.

1851-56 or 57
   Attends public school in Le Havre, where he learns drawing from François-Charles Ochard.

   Becomes locally well-known for his caricatures, exhibited in the window of an art supply shop. Eugene Boudin (1824-98), who shows landscapes in the same display window, persuades Monet to work out-of-doors with him and to try pastels and oils.

   JANUARY 28. Mother dies.

   AUGUST--SEPTEMBER. Makes his debut at a municipally sponsored art exhibition in Le Havre with a landscape in oils.
   SEPTEMBER 30. Jacques Lecadre dies. His childless widow, Monet's Aunt Sophie, oversees his adolescence.

   MAY. Moves to Paris to study painting. Impressed at Salon with works by Troyon (1810-1865), whose advice he seeks. Boudin's pastel studies of skies are praised in a review by Charles Baudclaire. Rather than enroll as a student of Thomas Couture as his family wishes, Monet attends the "Académie Suisse," where withont formal guidance artists study from life models. Meets Camille Pissafro there. Frequents the Brasserie des Martyrs, meeting place for realist artists and writers.

   Hopes to earn money as a newspaper caricaturist, but only one of his drawings is published.

   MARCH. Selected by lottery for military service.
   JUNE.Joins his regiment, the Chasseurs d'Afrique, in Algeria.

   SUMMER. Given six months convalescence leave in Le Havre after falling sick. Meets Jongkind.
   OCTOBER. His Aunt Sophie pays for Monet to be released from his five remaining years of military obligation. Monet returns to Paris to enroll for formal art instruction under Charles Gleyre.

   Becomes friends with fellow Gleyre students Bazille, Renoir, and Sisley.
   APRIL. Visits Chailly-en-Brière, a village in the forest of Fontainebleau, to paint landscapes with Bazille during Easter school holidays; he stays on after his colleague returns to Paris.

   Returns to Chailly-en-Brière for Easter school holidays.
   MAY. Bazille and Monet paint along the coast at Honfieur, visiting Saint-Siméon, an inn long popular with landscape painters of Boudin's and Jongkind's generation.
   OCTOBER. Submits a still life to an exhibition in Rouen. M. Gaudibert, a Le Havre shipowner who supported Boudin, becomes his first patron.

   Shares studio with Bazille at 6 rue Furstenberg in Paris. Submits two seascapes to Salon. Returns to Chailly to begin a large out-of-doors work for the next Salon: Luncheon on the Grass.
   WINTER. Returns to Paris after a trip to .Trouville, where he meets Whistler.

   JANUARY 15 Forced to move into new studio on Place Pigalle. Temporarily abandons Luncheon on the Grass, which cannot be finished by deadline for Salon entries. Quickly undertakes Woman in the Green Dress (Camille) to submit instead, along with a small Chailly landscape. His model is Camille Doncieux, his mistress.
   Encouraged by Salon success, they rent a house at Sèvres, near Ville d'Avray, where she models out-of-doors for Women in the Garden. Courbet visits.
   SUMMER. Forced to leave Sèvres to escape creditors, Monet goes to Honfleur, where he finds Courbet and Boudin. Begins large seascape for forthcoming Salon.

   Bazille allows penniless Monet to stay at his rue Visconti studio, where Renoir too has refuge. Monet's works refused by Salon jury; Woman in the Garden exhibited in window of an art supply shop owned by Latouche. Bazille decides to acquire this work, paying Monet in monthly installments. Monet and Renoir paint views of Paris.
   AUGUST 8. Camille gives birth to a son, Jean. To save money, Monet spends most of the year with his aunt at Saint-Adresse, leaving Camille in Paris.

   Only one of Monet's two large paintings of the port of Le Hayre is accepted by the Salon jury.
   SPRING. Takes a room in village of Bennecourt on Seine, but money runs out.
   Encounters Courbet and Alexandre Dumas at Le Havre. JULY--OCTOBER. Five paintings by Monet included in International Maritime Exhibition in Le Havre. He wins a silver medal, but his works are seized by creditors, from whom Monet's patron Gaudibert buys them back.
   DECEMBER. Monet joins Camille at Etretat.

   JANUARY. Dealer Latouche shows one of Monet's views of Paris in his shop window.
   APRIL. Monet's works refused by Salon jury. Latouche again lets Monet show in his window, this time a Sainte-Adresse scene.
   SUMMER. Renoir and Monet work together at La Grenouillère, a bathing and boating center on the Seine. Monet envisions a Salon painting on this theme.

   SPRING. Again refused at the Salon. Daubigny resigns from the jury in protest.
   JUNE 28. Marries Camille. They summer at Hôtel Tivoli in Trouville, where Monet paints on beach with Boudin.
   JULY 7. Death of aunt, Sophie Lecadre.
   JULY 19. Outbreak of Franco-Prussian War.
   SEPTEMBER. Unable to pay hotel bill and feeling no military obligation, Monet goes to London.
   NOVEMBER 18. Bazille killed in action.
   In London, Monet introduced by Daubigny to dealer Paul Durand-Ruel, who has taken refuge there and opened a gallery.
   DECEMBER 10. Durand-Ruel exhibits Entrance to Trouville Harbor in London.

   JANUARY 17. Father dies.
   JANUARY 28. Armistice between France and Germany.
   SPRING. Visiting London museums with Pissaro, Monet studies works by Constable and Turner. Like Pissarro, Monet refused when he submits works to Royal Academy exhibition London.
   MAY. Durand-Ruel lends two paintings by Monet to the in. ternational exhibition at the South Kensington Museum. Leaves London to paint in Zaandam, Holland.
   AUTUMN. Returns to Paris.
   DECEMBER. Rents house in Argenteuil on the Seine.

   Exhibits works at municipal exhibition in Rouen. DurandRuel begins to buy dozens of Monet's paintings, some of which are exhibited in London. Monet buys a boat and converts it into a floating studio.

   APRIL. With Pissarro, Sisley, and Renoir, Monet begins to plan a society of independent artists to present works outside the Salons.
   DECEMBER 27. Monet's circle of artists adopts a charter as the Société Anonyme Coopérative d'Artistes-Peintres, -Sculpteurs, -Graveurs.

   Returns to Holland.
   APRIL 15--MAY 15. First group exhibition at Nadar's former photography studio on the boulevard des Capucines. A critic, on the basis of one of Monet's works, listed in the catalogue as Impression: Sunrise, gives the group the name "impressionists which the press often uses derisively thereafter. In financial difficulty, Durand-Ruel is unable to continue purchases, leaving Monet poverty-stricken again.
   SUMMER. Evicted from his house in Argenteuil, Monet, with Manet's help, finds another in the same village. Monet, Manet, and Renoir paint together at Argenteuil.
   DECEMBER. The Société Anonyme is dissolved, bankrupt.

   MARCH 24. Impressionists auction works at the Hôtel Drouot, where police restrain a mocking public. Bids are low.

   FEBRUARY. Through Cézanne, Monet meets collector Victor Chocquet.
   APRIL 15. Second impressionist exhibition at Galetie Durand-Ruel with 18 works by Monet. Again, public response is mostly hostile. Becomes friends with department store magnate and art speculator, Ernest HosebedS, to whose summer chateau at Rottenbourg the painter is invited as a guest, as is Manet. Hoschedé commissions Monet to paint large decorative works for his dining room there. Caillebotte, a wealthy painter, begins to buy works from Monet. Camille becomes seriously ill, possibly from an attempted abortion.

   JANUARY. Caillebotte rents a small studio for Monet near the Gate Saint-Lazare, which Monet portrays in a series of a dozen paintings.
   APRIL 5. Seven Gare Saint-Lazare pictures are among 30 works by Monet in the third impressionist exhibition.
   AUGUST 24. Hoschedé declares bankruptcy.

   Leaves Argenteuil with financial help from Manet and Caillebotte.
   MARCH 17. Birth of second son, Michel.
   JUNE 5--6. At auction of Hoschedé's collection, works by Monet and his associates are sold dirt-cheap.
   AUGUST. Monet and his family take a house in Vétheuil on the Seine and are soon joined by Hoschedé, his wife, and their six children. Monet commutes to Paris to find buyers for his paintings, but cannot find enough even to cover expenses. Camille's weakened health deteriorates.

   APRIL 10--MAY 11. Financially backed by Caillebotte, the impressionists hold fourth group exhibition, including 29 works by Monet.
   SUMMER. Collectors begin to suspect that Monet is working too fast, given his pressing need to make sales.
   SEPTEMBER 5- Camille dies after long suffering.

   JANUARY. Monet paints the dramatic ice floes and floods following the freezing and thawing of the Seine.
   MARCH. Like Renoir, Monet decides to submit two paintings to the Salon rather than participate in the fifth impressionist exhibition. Jury accepts only one, which is hung inconspicuously.
   JUNE 21. Exhibition of 18 Monet works at office gallery of La Vie moderne, an illustrated arts and society magazine owned by Renoir's patron, Charpentier, whose wife buys Monet's Salon painting as a present for her husband.
   AUGUST 5. Three works by Monet included at municipal exhibition in Le Havre.

   MARCH. Having decided to exhibit neither at the Salon nor at the sixth impressionist exhibition, Monet paints on the Normandy coast with expenses advanced by Durand-Ruel. AUGUST. Returns to paint on Normandy coast.
   DECEMBER. Monet moves to Poissy. Against her husband's wishes, Alice Hoschedé and her children follow him there, leaving no doubt about her relationship with the painter.

   FEBRUARY. Because one of his most important backers goes bankrupt, Durand-Ruel cuts his financial support. Monet at work in Dieppe and Pourville.
   MARCH 1. Seventh impressionist exhibition shows 35 works by Monet.
   JUNE--OCTOBER. Returns to Pourville, accompanied by his family and Alice Hoschedé's.

   JANUARY 25. Monet returns to Channel coast, working mostly at Etretat.
   FEBRUARY 28. Monet's first one-man exhibition at Galetie Durand-Ruel.
   APRIL. Leases a new home in Giverny.
   MAY 3. Returns to Paris to be a pallbearer at Manet's funeral.
   SPRING. Undertakes still lifes to decorate doors for DurandRuel's private apartment.
   DECEMBER. Short trip with Renoir to explore Mediterranean motifs and to visit Cézanne at L'Estaque.

   JANUARY 17. Returns to Bordighera, just across the Italian border, for three months' work.
   NOVEMBER 17. Durand-Ruel introduces Monet to Mirbeau, in thanks for whose support in La France, Monet gives him The Customs Officers' Cabin.

   MAY 15. Ten works by Monet included in fourth Exposition Internationale de la Peinture at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris.
   AUTUMN. Returns with family to Etretat, staying at a house put at their disposal by Faure, the singer. Monet stays on for three months.

   FEBRUARY 6. Ten works included at exhibition of Société des xx in Brussels.
   FEBRUARY 19. Returns to Etretat.
   APRIL. Forty-nine works by Monet included in first New York exhibition of impressionist art organized by Durand-Ruel at American Art Association. This successful exhibition is extended through the summer. Publication of Zola's novel L'Oeuvre, with its painter protagonist based in part on Monet. APRIL 27. Monet makes short working trip to Holland.
   MAY 15. Eighth and last impressionist exhibition opens without the participation of Monet.
   JUNE 15. Thirteen works by Monet included in fifth Exposition Internationale at Galerie Georges Petit.
   SEPTEMBER--NOVEMBER. Working trip to Belle-Ile-en-Mer. Meets Gustave Geffroy. Mirbeau visits him there.

   MAY 8. Belle-Ile paintings exhibited with great success at Galetie Georges Petit's sixth Exposition Internationale.
   MAY 25. Twelve works by Monet included in Durand-Ruel's second impressionist exhibition at the National Academy of Design in New York.
   NOVEMBER 25. Thanks to Whistler, two works by Monet are included in an exhibition of the Royal Society of British Artists in London.

   JANUARY--APRIL. Paints at Antibes and Juan-les-Pins. Breaks business relations with Petit.
   JUNE. One-man exhibition of ten Antibes landscapes at the Boussod and Valadon gallery, directed by Théo van Gogh.
   JULY. Visits London. Refuses Legion of Honor.
   AUTUMN. Begins Haystacks series.

   FEBRUARY. Exhibition of 90 works at Goupil gallery, London. Monet visits poet Rollinat at Fresselines in the Creuse valley in central France. Exhibits four works in Brussels with Société des XX.
   MARCH--MAY. Returns to the Creuse to paint.
   MAY 21. Three paintings included in the Exposition Universelie in Paris.
   JUNE. Monet's largest and most successful retrospective to date organized at Galerie Georges Petit in tandem with a Rodin exhibition.
   AUTUMN. Monet organizes private subscription to buy Manet's Olympia for the Louvre.

   Begins Poplars series on the banks of the Epte river. NOVEMBER. Buys house and property at Giverny and starts improvements on garden, which will become a passion in ensuing years.

   MARCH 18. Death of Ernest Hoschedé.
   MAY 4--I6. Exhibition of 22 recent works, including 15 Haystacks in Galerie Durand-Ruel.
   AUGUST. In order to continue work on his series, Monet buys a row of poplars from the town of Limnetz.
   DECEMBER. Visits London briefly.

   FEBRUARY. Begins Cathedrals series in Rouen.
   FEBRUARY 29. Fifteen works, including six Poplars, exhibited at Galerie Durand-Ruel.
   JULY 16. Marries Alice Hoschedé
   JULY 20. Monet's stepdaughter, Suzanne, marries American painter, Theodore Butler.
   NOVEMBER. Passed over for nomination as muralist for Paris City Hall.

   JANUARY. Seine freezes over, providing Monet with new motif.
   FEBRUARY 5. Buys land across railroad tracks where he will create water garden after townspeople's objections to exotic flowers are laid to rest.
   FEBRUARY--APRIL. Returns to Rouen to continue Cathedrals.
   MAY 1. Included in Chicago World's Fair exhibition of foreign artists in American collections.

   FEBRUARY 21. Death of Caillebotte, whose bequest to France of his collection of impressionist painting, including 16 works by Monet, causes bitter controversy that recalls the public outrage in 1874.
   APRIL. Durand-Ruel is reluctant to pay Monet's price of 15,ooo francs for each Cathedral, but the collector Camondo buys four.
   NOVEMBER. Cézanne visits and paints in Giverny, staying at Hôtel Baudy. Monet introduces him to Clemenceau, Rodin, and Geffroy.

   JANUARY--APRIL. Monet visits his stepson Jacques Hoschedé at Sandviken, Norway, near Oslo.
   MAY 10. Exhibition of 50 paintings, including 20 of the Cathedral series at Galerie Durand-Ruel. Begins painting Water Lilies in Giverny garden.

   FEBRUARY--MARCH. Paints previous motifs at Varengéville, Pourville, and Dieppe (Normandy).
   MARCH 9- Exhibition of Monet's Cathedrals in New York. Begins Mornings on the Seine series.
   APRIL. State accepts only 40 of the works from the Caillebotte bequest, including eight by Monet, for the modern art museum at the Luxembourg Palace.
   OCTOBER--DECEMBER. Works exhibited in Berlin.

   JANUARY. Paints at Pourville.
   MARCH. Controversy over installation of the Caillebotte bequest at the Luxembourg Museum.
   AUGUST. Monet shows earliest studies for Water Lilies decorations to reporter Maurice Guillemot.

   JUNE 1. Major one-man exhibition at Galerie Georges Petit, with 61 works, including 18 Mornings on the Seine.

   Exhibitions at Galetie Durand-Ruel, Galerie Georges Petit, and the Lotus Club in New York.
   SUMMER. Paints water garden canvases.
   AUTUMN. Begins to paint views of the Thames from a room in the Savoy Hotel in London.

   FEBRUARY--APRIL. Returns to London to continue Thames series.
   Three early works chosen for the Exposition Centennale.
   SUMMER.Temporary loss of sight in one eye after an accident retards progress on water garden paintings. Paints at Vétheuil.
   One-man exhibition of recent works, including 23 water garden paintings at Galerie Durand-Ruel.

   Continues work at Vétheuil.
   SPRING. Returns to London, where he collapses from overwork.
   NOVEMBER. Diverts the Epte, a small river, to flow through his pond so his rare plants will thrive.

   Begins painting the Water Lilies series.
   FEBRUARY 20. Galetie Bernheim-Jeune presents an exhibition of recent works by Monet and Pissarro, including six new views of Vétheuil.

   Works on his London scenes from memory, forsaking his principle to paint only directly from nature.

   MAY 9. Thirty-seven views of London exhibited at the Galerie Durand-Ruel.
   OCTOBER. Trip to Madrid by automobile with his wife to sec the treasures of the Prado Museum.

   FEBRUARY. Durand-Ruel organizes a large exhibition of impressionist paintings at the Grafton Galleries in London, including 55 by Monet.

   Slow progress on Water Lilies series with frequent repainting. Destroys some works in frustration. Monet postpones projected exhibition of this series.

   Clemenceau elected Premier. The State buys a Rouen Cathedral for the Luxembourg Museum.

   Bad health and eye problems.
   AUTUMN. Long working trip to Venice with wife. Stays at the Palazzo Barbaro, owned by Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Curtis, American friends of Sargent; relocates to Grand Hotel Britannia.
   DECEMBER. Upon returning to Giverny, Monet works on the Water Lilies series in his studio.

   Alice becomes ill.
   MAY 6--JUNE 5. Forty-eight Water Lilies pictures exhibited at Galetie Durand-Ruel.
   AUTUMN. Wants to return to Venice.

   Enlarges his water lily pond.

   Eyesight deteriorates.
   MAY 19. Death of Alice Hoschedé Monet, plunging the painter into a long period of grief.
   Works on his Venetian canvases from memory.
   AUGUST. One-man exhibition of 45 paintings at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

   MAY 28--JUNE 8. Exhibition of 29 paintings of Venice at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune.
   JULY. An eye specialist in Paris diagnoses double cataracts.

   FEBRUARY 10. Monet's son Jean dies after a protracted illness. Blanche Hoschedé, Jean's widow and Monet's stepdaughter, becomes his permanent housekeeper and confidante.
   Encouraged by Clemenceau, Monet begins a series of mural-sized versions of Water Lilies. To accommodate the large canvases, Monet begins construction of a third studio.
   JUNE. Monet's works put on view in the Louvre as part of the Camondo bequest.
   JULY. Outbreak of World War I; departure of Michel and Monet's stepdaughters' husbands from Giverny to join ranks.

   New studio completed.
   Rodin's gift of his studio-home, the Hôtel Biron, accepted by the State as a museum for his sculptures.

   Work on murals continues. Paints three self-portraits, destroying two of them and giving the third to Clemenceau.
   OCTOBER. Visits Le Havre, Honfleur, Etretat, and other Normandy coast sites familiar from his youth.

   NOVEMBER 11. Armistice.
   NOVEMBER 18. Clemenceau and Geffroy visit Giverny to persuade Monet to offer his still unfinished murals to the State.

   Despite worsening sight, Monet fears that an operation might leave him blind.

   JANUARY 17. Clemenceau defeated in his bid to become President.
   OCTOBER 15. Official announcement of Monet's intention to donate 12 large Water Lilies paintings to the State. A pavilion is to be erected for them in the gardens of the Hôtel Biron (Rodin Museum).
   Monet refuses nomination into prestigious Institut de France.

   JANUARY 21--FEBRUARY 2. A retrospective exhibition is held at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune.
   FEBRUARY 8. State buys Women in the Garden from Monet for 2oo,ooo francs.
   State refuses to fund Hôtel Biron building for Monet's murals; offers space in the Orangerie des Tuileries instead.

   APRIL 12. At Vernon, Monet signs official agreement to submit his gift to the State in April 1924. Almost blinded by cataracts, Monet feels pressed by this deadline to continue work on murals.

   JANUARY. Operation only partially restores sight in his right eye.
   JULY. Second operation for right eye.

   JANUARY. Large retrospective exhibition at Galerie Georges Petit.
   FEBRUARY. Durand-Ruel exhibits recent Water Lilies paintings in New York.
   Clemenceau arranges an extension of deadline for completion of Monet's murals and Monet gets corrective glasses.

   Monet delays delivery of murals to State for a final attempt to complete them satisfactorily with the aid of the eyeglasses.

   Severe respiratory illness.
   DECEMBER 5. Monet, aged 86, dies at noon at Giverny with Clemenceau at his side.

   MAY 17. The Water Lilies murals are dedicated in the Orangerie.

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